All GS grads receive a funding package of $32,568 (as of 7/1/17) per year, plus a tuition waiver and health insurance. Funding is typically provided by the department during your first year and by your lab thereafter.
All students should apply for outside funding. This should ideally be done early in your first or second year. Your own fellowship will look great on a resume and will also make your thesis advisor very happy...
Specifically, the department expects all students who are US citizens or permanent residents to apply for National Science Foundation fellowships. You will take a course that will prepare you for this application. NSF funding opportunities can be found at: http://www.nsfgrfp.org/
Other funding sources include:
NIH grants home page - the basic gateway into NIH grants of all types - has information links to forms, instructions, processes etc. See the left side of the page for 'types of grants', F series
Predoctoral NIH fellowship (F31) detail instructions - review for the full scoop on how to complete these forms, what gets included in the applications, where
they get sent and most important, the deadlines: Dec 8, Apr 8, August 8 - Please remember to contact the Genome Sciences grants team 6 weeks before the deadline
To target your NIH search for funding even more specifically, check out the specific NIH institute that might support your work. Review the NIH roadmap (http://nihroadmap.nih.gov/) and then check out the NIH home page for institute list: http://www.nih.gov/icd/index.html
Ford Foundation Diversity Fellowships - http://www7.nationalacademies.org/fordfellowships/index.html
Eligibility: U. S. Citizen or national with evidence of superior academic achievement (such as grade point average, class rank, honors, other designations);
Commitment to a career in teaching and research at the college or university level;
Enrolled in or planning to enroll in an eligible research-based Ph.D. or Sc.D. program at a U. S. educational institution and have not yet earned a doctoral degree in any field.
Award: Approximately 60 Predoctoral Awards at $20,000 per year for up to three years.
Approximately 35 Dissertation Awards at $21,000 for one year
Approximately 20 Postdoctoral Awards at $40,000 for one year
U. S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship - http://www.krellinst.org/csgf/
Eligibility: U.S. Citizen or permanent resident; Students must be planning full-time uninterrupted PhD study at a U. S. University; Students in their first or second year of graduate study in the physical, engineering, computer, mathematical, or life sciences are eligible to apply for the DOE Computational Science Graduate Fellowship. Exceptional senior undergraduates who can meet all the requirements listed here may also apply.
When to apply: Graduating seniors or first or second year graduate students.
Award: Payment of all tuition and fees; Yearly stipend of $31,200; Allowance of $1,000 annually for research; up to $2,475 for computer workstation; renewable up to four years.
Department of Energy Office of Science Graduate Fellowship - http://scgf.orau.gov/
National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship - http://ndseg.asee.org/
Community of Science - a search engine for all types of funding opportunities. The site has a search wizard that lets you refine your search to closely match the type of program and research you want to do:
Many non-profit organizations are using a web portal for application submission called Proposal Central. This website shows a list of upcoming application deadlines, the sponsors, and provides links to the sponsors so you can find out more. https://proposalcentral.altum.com/
And finally, there is the primary federal application portal, grants.gov.